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  28 May 2022, Volume 38 Issue 3 Previous Issue   
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effects of aerobic exercise on CNPY2-PERK pathway in the liver of mice with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
LI Jun-han, XIONG Wei, WANG Jia-qian, LI Ya-long, JIANG Chang-jun
CJAP. 2022, 38 (3): 193-198.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.6282.2022.046
Abstract   PDF (1461KB)
Objective: To investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) induced by high fat and the mechanism of CNPY2-PERK pathway. Methods: Eight-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into four groups: the control group (C), the C+ aerobic exercise group (CE), the model group (M) and the M+ aerobic exercise group (ME). Mice in group C and CE were given normal diet, while mice in group M and ME were given high-fat diet (60 cal % fat). The mice were fed continuously for 18 weeks until the end of the experiment, and the serum and liver samples were collected. Both CE and ME group performed an aerobic treadmill training from the 10th week (12 m/min, 60 min/ day, 5 days/week, for 8 weeks). The serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were detected. The pathological morphology of the liver was observed. The relative expressions of CNPY2, PERK, p-eIF2a, CHOP, CNPY2 mRNA and PERK mRNA, and the positive expressions of CNPY2 and PERK were measured. Results: Compared with group C, the serum levels of LDL-c, TC, TG, ALT and AST in group M were increased significantly (P<0.05), while the HDL-c level was decreased significantly (P<0.05). The liver tissues of mice showed obvious hepatic steatosis, the number of lipid droplets in liver cells was increased, and the expressions of CNPY2, CNPY2mRNA, PERK, PERKmRNA, p-eIF2a, CHOP, and the positive expressions of both CNPY2 and PERK in liver were increased (P<0.05). However, the above indexes showed no significant difference in CE group (P>0.05). Compared with group M, the serum levels of LDL-c, TC, TG, ALT and AST in group ME were decreased (P<0.05). The fatty degeneration of liver tissue and the number of lipid droplets in liver cells in mice was reduced, and the expressions of CNPY2, CNPY2 mRNA, PERK, PERK mRNA, p-eIF2a, CHOP, and the positive expressions of CNPY2 and PERK in liver tissue were decreased (P<0.05). Conclusion: The CNPY2-PERK pathway is involved in the formation of NAFLD. Aerobic exercise can effectively ameliorate NAFLD, and the mechanisms may be related to the reduction of CNPY2-PERK pathway-related molecule expressions by aerobic exercise.
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The effects of different herbal compound and extracts from different extraction methods on hypoxia tolerance in mice
LI Wan-yu, MA Hui-ping, MA Qu-huan, SHI Xiao-feng, LU Yan-mei, ZHANG Peng-peng, ZHANG Jia-xu, DONG Xue-feng, YE Qian-nju
CJAP. 2022, 38 (3): 199-204.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.6227.2022.039
Abstract   PDF (994KB)
Objective: To investigate the effects of different prescription compositions of traditional Chinese medicine and its different extraction methods of compound formula extracts on hypoxia tolerance in mice, in order to preferably select their prescription compositions and preparation extraction methods. Methods: Male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 6 groups: blank control group, compound danshen group, compound Rhodiola Rosea alcohol-water extract group (Rhodiola rosea, Astragali Radix, Polygonati Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus), compound Rhodiola Rosea water extract group, compound Astragalus alcohol-water extract group (Astragali Radix, Polygonati Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus) and compound Astragalus water extract group, 30 mice in each group. Each group was administered continuously by gavage for 10 d. The blank group was gavaged with sterilized injection water. The mice in the other groups were treated with 0.15 g/kg of compound danshen, 3 g/kg of compound Rhodiola Rosea alcohol-water extract or water extract, and 1.7 g/kg of compound Astragalus alcohol-water extract or water extract, respectively. Each group was subjected to normobaric hypoxia tolerance test, sodium nitrite toxicity survival test and acute cerebral ischemia-hypoxia test 1 h after the last gavage, and the mice brain tissues were used to determine the activity of antioxidant enzymes and metabolites related to oxidative stress. Results: Compared with the blank control group, in normobaric hypoxia tolerance test, the survival time of mice in the compound danshen group and the compound Astragalus alcohol-water extract group and water extraction group was prolonged significantly (P<0.01), and the number of open-mouth gasping after cerebral ischemia and hypoxia was increased significantly (P<0.05). There was no statistical difference in survival time after sodium nitrite injection in each group. Compared with the blank control group, the activities of T-AOC, SOD, GSH and CAT were increased significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01) and the content of MDA was decreased significantly (P<0.01) in the compound Astragalus water extract group. Compared with the compound danshen group, the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH were increased significantly (P<0.01, P<0.05) and the content of MDA was decreased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: Compound Astragalus water extraction has the best effect of hypoxia tolerance, compound Rhodiola Rosea can eliminate Rhodiola rosea and consists of Astragali Radix, Polygonati Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus and its extraction method is water extraction.
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The effects of different exercise modes on Rab5 protein and glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic mellitus rats
GUAN Dong-ru, FANG Ming, ZHU Man-zi, WANG Ke, CUI Yong, BAI You-ping
CJAP. 2022, 38 (3): 207-211.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.6239.2022.040
Abstract   PDF (1589KB)
Objective: To investigate the effects of continuing exercise and load-bearing interval exercise on skeletal muscle tissue cell morphology, Ras-related proteins 5 (Rab5) mRNA and protein expression and glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) rats. Methods: Eight SD rats were selected as controls group (CR), the others SD rats were fed with high fat and high sugar diet for 6 weeks before injecting STZ (35 mg/kg) to construct the T2DM model. Twenty-four T2DM rats were randomly devided into T2DM model group (DRM), continuing exercise group (DCRE) and load-bearing interval exercise group (DWRE), 8 rats in each group. DCRE exercise protocol, that was 15 m/min (10 min), 20 m/min (40 min), 15 m/min (10 min), during the first 1~2 weeks, and 18 m/min (10 min), 25 m/min (40 min), 15 m/min (10 min), during the second 3~8 weeks. DWRE exercise protocol: load weight 15% / 1~2 weeks, 30% / 3~4 weeks, 45% / 5~8 weeks, with 15 m/min (5 min), 12 groups and 3 min rest between groups. After 8 weeks, pathological and morphological changes of skeletal muscle were observed by HE. Rab5 and Glucose transporte 4 (GLUT4) mRNA expressions of skeletal muscle were tested by qRT-PCR. Rab5 protein expression in skeletal muscle was tested by immunofluorescence histochemistry and Western blot, and plasma Rab5 and Glycosylated Hemoglobin (GHb) concentrations were detected by ELISA. Results: Comparison with CR, DRM showed pathological damage of skeletal muscle, the expressions of Rab5 mRNA, protein and GLUT4 mRNA were all decreased in skeletal muscle (P<0.01), the serum levels of Rab5 and GHb were both significantly elevated (P<0.01). Comparison with DRM, both DCRE and DWRE significantly improved pathological damages of skeletal muscle, the expressions of Rab5 mRNA, protein and GLUT4 mRNA were all increased in skeletal muscle (P< 0.05, P<0.01), the serum levels of Rab5 and GHb were decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01), and there was no statistical difference between DCRE and DWRE groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Two exercise modes can improve the pathological injury of skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetic rats, and enhance GLUT4 transport capacity by improving the expression of Rab5 gene and protein in skeletal muscle, and alleviate the imbalance of glucose metabolism homeostasis in skeletal muscle. However, there was no significant difference between the effects of two exercise modes on Rab5 protein and glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle.
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Aerobic exercise improves renal fibrosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats
CAO Shu-yuan, CHANG Qing, LIU Guo-chun, LUO Ming-hao, WANG Yang, HE Long-lin
CJAP. 2022, 38 (3): 212-217.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.6246.2022.042
Abstract   PDF (1542KB)
Objective: To study the effects of aerobic exercise training on renal fibrosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and to explore the protective effect of exercise on renal damage in hypertensive rats. Methods: Eight-week-old male SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats of the same age (WKY) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=6): sedentary WKY control group (WKY-S), sedentary SHR control group (SHR-S), low-intensity exercise group (SHR-L) and medium-intensity exercise group (SHR-M). SHR-L group and SHR-M group were set at a slope of 0° at 14 m/min (35% of the maximum aerobic speed) and 20 m/min (50% of the maximum aerobic speed), running on a sports treadmill for 14 weeks, 5 times a week, and 60 min each time. WKY-S and SHR-S groups were kept quietly. Blood pressure was measured 72 hours after exercise training. And the serum levels of creatinine (Scr) and BUN were detected. The morphology of renal tissue was observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The collagen deposition of renal tissue was observed by Masson staining, and the renal collagen volume fraction (CVF) was calculated. Results: Compared with WKY-S group, blood pressure, serum Scr and BUN, kidney CVF levels and AngⅡ, AT1R, TGF-β, α-SMA, CTGF expressions in SHR-S group were increased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with SHR-S group, blood pressure, serum Scr and BUN, kidney CVF level and AngⅡ, AT1R, TGF-β, α-SMA, CTGF expressions in SHR-L and SHR-M groups were decreased significantly (P<0.05) and the decreasing trend was more obvious in SHR-M group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Aerobic exercise can improve renal fibrosis and renal function in spontaneously hypertensive rats by inhibiting the AngⅡ-AT1R-TGF-β pathway.
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The role of clock gene BMAL1 in exercise-induced skeletal muscle injury recovery
FU Ze-ting, XIA Yu, DING Hai-li
CJAP. 2022, 38 (3): 220-226.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.6243.2022.041
Abstract   PDF (2163KB)
Objective: To investigate the role of clock gene BMAL1 in exercise-induced skeletal muscle injury recovery. Methods: Two hundred and eight 8-week-old SD rats were randomly divided into the control group (Group C, n=104) and the exercise group (Group E, n=104). Group E performed a 90-minute downhill run on the treadmill. After exercise, the gastrocnemius muscle of 8 rats in Group C and Group E were collected at 0 h, 6 h, 12 h, 18 h, 24 h, 30 h, 36 h, 42 h, 48 h, 54 h, 60 h, 66 h and 72 h. The expression of skeletal muscle core clock gene, BMAL1 was measured by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. The parameters of fitting cosine curve were obtained by cosine analysis software circacompare (R package), and the change trend of rhythmic oscillation was analyzed. The ultrastructure of skeletal muscle fibers was observed by transmission electron microscope. The expressions of skeletal muscle BMAL1 and DESMIN were detected by Western blot; Immunofluorescence was used to observe the localization and contents of BMAL1 and DESMIN. Results: In Group C, three complete circadian rhythm cycles of mRNA BMAL1 were observed within 72 hours; in Group E, the circadian rhythm of BMAL1 mRNA disappeared at 0 h~24 h. Compared with Group C, the expression level of BMAL1 mRNA was significantly increased at 0 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 18 h after exercise in Group E (P<0.05), and the expression of BMAL1 protein was significantly increased at 0 h and 12 h after exercise(P<0.05), and recovered to the level of that in Group C from 24 h to 72 h(P>0.05). The expression of DESMIN protein was decreased at 0 h and 12 h after exercise(P<0.05), gradually increased at 24 h, increased significantly at 48 h(P<0.01), and recovered to the control level at 72 h (P>0.05). In Group E, BMAL1 and DESMIN were co-localized at 0 h, 12 h, and 24 h after exercise; the colocalization at 0 h~24 h showed a trend of first decreasing and then increasing, and the fluorescence intensity at 24 h reached the highest value. Conclusion: The post-exercise clock gene BMAL1 may be involved in the enhanced synergy of regulating the cytoskeletal protein DESMIN, it is thus related to the promotion of muscle fiber structure recovery.
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Protective effects of Polygonatum odoratum polysaccharides on alcohol-induced injury of HepG2 cells and its mechanisms
ZHU Qi, WU Ya-wen, WANG Xiao-hui, LI Geng-xi
CJAP. 2022, 38 (3): 227-232.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.6287.2022.047
Abstract   PDF (1063KB)
Objective: To investigate the protective effects of Polygonatum odoratum polysaccharides (POP) on alcohol-induced injury of HepG2 cells and its potential molecular mechanisms. Methods: After screening the appropriate concentration of alcohol-treated HepG2 cells and the intervention concentration of POP by MTT method, HepG2 cells were divided into three groups according to different intervention concentrations (200 μg/L, 400 μg/L and 600 μg/L) of POP, and the blank group without POP. After pretreated for 1 h, HepG2 cells were treated with 4% alcohol for 24 h. The activities of intracellular alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured, and the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF- α) were measured. The protein expressions of Kelch-like epichlorohydrin-associated protein-1 (Keap1), phosphorylated nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (p-Nrf2), phosphoamide adenine dinucleotide quinone oxidoreductase -1 (NQO1), B lymphocyte tumor-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and caspase 3 were detected. Results: Compared with the HepG2 cells treated with 4% alcohol, POP at the various concentrations could effectively down-regulate the activities of ALT and AST in HepG2 cells induced by alcohol (P<0.05). The levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in the 200 μg/L POP treated group were decreased significantly (P<0.05), while the level of GSH was increased significantly (P<0.01). The levels of ROS, MDA, IL-1β and TNF-α in the 400 μg/L and 600 μg/L POP treated groups were decreased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01), while the GSH level was increased significantly (P<0.01). POP effectively up-regulated the expressions of p-Nrf2 and NQO1 protein in HepG2 cells induced by alcohol, and also down-regulated the Bax/Bcl-2 index (P<0.05), and inhibited the protein expressions of Keap1 and cleaved-caspase-3 (P<0.05). Conclusion: POP can improve alcohol-induced oxidative stress injury in HepG2 cells by regulating the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway, thereby reducing the inflammatory index and apoptosis level of HepG2 cells. Among them, 400 μg/L and 600 μg/L POP have better intervention effects.
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Effects of vitamin C on antioxidant function of testis in cadmium-loaded mice
ZHOU Jian, QIN Hao, LI Xiao-hong, WANG Yong-hui
CJAP. 2022, 38 (3): 233-237.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.6258.2022.043
Abstract   PDF (932KB)
Objective: To investigate the effects of cadmium (Cd) on antioxidant enzymes in testis of mice and the protective effect of vitamin C (VC). Methods: A total of 72 male Kunming mice of clean grade were divided into four groups (n=18): the control group, the Cd group (CdCl2 3 mg/kg), the VC group (200 mg/kg), and the VC (200 mg/kg) +Cd group (CdCl2 3 mg/kg). Mice were poisoned once a day, exposed for 1 and 3 days and were treated with VC at the same time. Twenty-four hours after exposure on the 1st and 3rd day, half of the mice in each group were weighed, the serum and testis tissues were collected. Testicular organ coefficient, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum and testis tissues, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and total glutathione (T-GSH) in testis tissues were detected. Results: Compared with the control group, the body weight and testicle organ coefficient of mice in the Cd group were decreased on the 1st and 3rd day; after 3 days of exposure, the serum SOD in the Cd group was decreased significantly and MDA was increased significantly (P<0.05); the levels of SOD, GSH-Px, T-GSH and GSH/GSSG of testis in the Cd group were increased significantly on the 1st day (P<0.05), while all the above indexes were decreased significantly on the 3rd day (P<0.05), and the content of MDA was increased significantly on the 1st and 3rd days in the Cd group (P<0.05); after VC treatment, the degree of reduction was decreased. Compared with the Cd group, the serum SOD and MDA levels in the VC+ Cd group were significantly different after 3 days of exposure (P<0.05); the changes of SOD, GSH-Px, T-GSH and GSH/GSSG levels of the testis in the VC+ Cd group were significantly different on the 1st and 3rd day of exposure (P<0.05), and the MDA level of the testis in the VC+ Cd group was decreased significantly on the 3rd day of exposure (P<0.05). Compared with the Cd group for 1 day, the level of serum SOD exposed for 3 days was decreased significantly (P<0.05), and the changes of testis indexes were also significantly different (P<0.05). Conclusion: VC treatment can improve the antioxidant function of cadmium-loaded mice to some extent, and has protective effect on oxidative damage of testis.
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Protective effects of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. juice on alcoholic liver injury in rats
HU Ge, CAO Jian-min, ZHOU Hai-tao, ZHANG Jing, TIAN Yi-ming, SONG Ying-yang, JIANG Ruo-yu
CJAP. 2022, 38 (3): 241-246.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.6242.2022.035
Abstract   PDF (1599KB)
Objective: To study the protective effects of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. juice on alcoholic liver injury in rats and explore the regulatory mechanism of toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathway in this process. Methods: Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into control group (C), model group (M), low-dose Lycium ruthenicum Murr. juice group (LLM), medium-dose Lycium ruthenicum Murr. juice group (MLM) and high-dose Lycium ruthenicum Murr. juice group (HLM), 12 rats in each group. The group M, LLM, MLM and HLM were treated with 20 ml/kg (8 g/(kg·d)) ethanol (400 g/L) intragastrically and the gavage was divided into two sessions, group C was treated with an equal volume of distilled water at the same time point. Four hours before the first alcohol gavage session, rats in each dose group of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. juice were administered with 2.4, 4.8, 9.6 ml/(kg·d) Lycium ruthenicum Murr. juice respectively, and the other groups were given equal volume of distilled water at the corresponding time points. Four weeks later, the rats were sacrificed 24 hours after the end of the last experiment, blood and liver were collected. The liver index was calculated. The morphology of the liver was observed by HE staining. The expressions of hepatic TLR4, p38 MAPK and phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK) were detected by immunohistochemistry. The activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were detected by colorimetry. The levels of hepatic tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Compared with group C, the alcoholic liver injury model was established successfully in Group M. Compared with group M, related indicators in each dose group of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. juice were improved, the improvement of hepatic morphology in group HLM was the most significant, the liver index, the levels of serum ALT, AST and hepatic TLR4, p38 MAPK/p-p38 MAPK ratio, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-18 were decreased (P< 0.05 or P<0.01), while the level of hepatic IL-10 was increased (P<0.01). Comparison among the dose groups of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. juice, the levels of liver index, serum AST and hepatic TLR4, p38 MAPK/p-p38 MAPK ratio, TNF-α, IL-18 in HLM were lower than those in LLM (P<0.05 or P<0.01); the level of hepatic IL-10 in HLM was higher than that in LLM and MLM (P<0.05 or P<0.01); the other indicators in each dose group had no statistical difference (P>0.05). Conclusion: Lycium ruthenicum Murr. juice can improve the inflammatory stress by regulating TLR4/p38 MAPK signaling pathway, relieve alcoholic liver injury in rats, and the effect of high-dose group is better than the others.
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Molecular mechanisms of Gupi Xiaoji decoction inducing apoptosis of human hepatoma HepG2 cells
LIU Zhuo, TIAN Xue-fei, GAO Wen-hui, TAN Xiao-ning, JIAN Hui-ying, LI Ke-xin, ZHANG Zhen, ZENG Pu-hua
CJAP. 2022, 38 (3): 247-251.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.6292.2022.049
Abstract   PDF (1206KB)
Objective: To investigate the molecular mechanisms of Gupi Xiaoji decoction on apoptosis of human hepatoma cells HepG2. Methods: HepG2 cells were divided into 4 groups: control group (Control), blank serum group (Blank), Gupi Xiaoji Yin serum group (GPXJY) and cisplatin group (Positive). Eight duplicate holes were set in each group. After treated with Gupi Xiaoji Decoction-containing serum or cisplatin for 24 hours, the cell viability, the number of viable cells, the state of apoptosis, the cell cycle and the mitochondrial membrane potential were detected, and the level of lipid peroxidation (MDA) and glycolysis rate of the cells were detected. The expressions of apoptotic Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3 proteins, and the contents of triacylglycerol (TG), cholesterol (TC), pyruvate and glucose in the cell supernatant were detected. Results: Compared with the control group, in the GPXJY group, the inhibition rate was increased (P<0.05), the number of cells was decreased, the number of apoptosis-positive cells was increased (P<0.01), the number of cells in the G1 phase was increased significantly (P<0.05), and the cell membrane potential was decreased (P<0.05,P<0.01), the glycolytic function was inhibited significantly, the MDA level was increased, the expressions of Bax and Caspase-3 in the GPXJY group were increased, and the expression of Bcl-2 was decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01). In cell supernatant, the TC, TG and glucose contents were decreased significantly, and the pyruvate content was increased significantly (P<0.05,P<0.01). Conclusion: Gupi Xiaoji Decoction can induce apoptosis of HepG2 cells and may play a role in energy metabolism.
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Adverse cardiovascular effects of antiretrovirals in female mice during gestation
YU Hai-juan, CHEN Zu-sheng, CHEN Tong, WU Yi-jing, SUN Ke-yue, LI Yu-jing, XU Qin, YE Han-hui, CHEN Ya-hong, RUAN Qin-yun, FU Li-yun, HUANG Chun-yan, ZHOU Lin-ying, WANG Min-hua, FANG Qiu-juan
CJAP. 2022, 38 (3): 252-257.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.6192.2022.038
Abstract   PDF (1641KB)
Objective: To evaluate the effects of antiretrovirals on cardiovascular function and some biochemical indexes in gestational female rats. Methods: Nineteen 9-week-old female and six 10-week-old male SD rats were divided into normal control group (CON) and highly active antiretroviral therapy group (HARRT), 9/10 female rats and 3 male rats were combined into one cage, totally 2 cages. Female rats in CON group were intragastrically given with normal saline (NS, 10 ml/kg) every morning and evening, while female rats in HARRT group were treated with equal volume antiretrovirals (AZT 31.25 mg/kg + 3TC 15.63 mg/kg + LPV/r (41.67/10.42) mg/kg) for 3 months. The body weight and survival rate of female rats were recorded. Echocardiography and multichannel physiological recorder were used to detect arterial blood pressure and cardiac hemodynamic parameters. The levels of blood glucose, blood lipids, myocardial enzymes and liver enzymes were detected by corresponding kits. Myocardial collagen fibers were observed by Masson staining and the ultrastructure of myocardial cells were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Results: All female rats in CON group survived (9/9), while only 6 rats in HARRT group survived (6/10). Compared with CON group, the body weight of female rats in HAART group was decreased significantly(P<0.01); the levels of left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVDd), interventricular septal thickness (IVST), thickness of left ventricular posterior wall (LVPWT) , left atrial diameter (LAD) and arterial diastolic pressure were increased significantly (P<0.05); the level of LVP+dP/dtmax was decreased (P<0.01). The levels of triglyceride, creatine kinase, and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase were decreased (P<0.05 or P<0.01), while the level of glucose was increased (P<0.05). The collagen fibers were increased in myocardial tissue, and ultrastructure of myocardial cells was abnormal. Conclusion: Antiretrovirals during gestation can cause cardiovascular diseases in female rats.
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Effects of ozone sub-chronic exposure on lncRNA expression profiles in rat heart
ZHAO Yue, TIAN Lei, YAN Jun, LI Kang, LIN Ben-cheng, XI Zhu-ge, LIU Xiao-hua
CJAP. 2022, 38 (3): 258-263.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.6267.2022.037
Abstract   PDF (1625KB)
Objective: This article aims to observe the changes in long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) expression profiles in rat hearts after ozone sub-chronic exposure. To provide scientific data to explore the role and mechanism of differentially expressed lncRNA in damaged hearts caused by ozone sub-chronic exposure. Methods: Eighteen Wistar rats were randomly divided into filtered air and ozone exposure groups, with nine rats in each group. The rats in filtered air group were exposed to filtered air, while the rats in ozone exposure group were exposed to ozone at 0.5 ppm(0.980 mg/m3)for 90 days at a frequency of 6 hours per day. After ozone exposure, cardiac tissues were collected and the total RNA was extracted. The expression level of lncRNA in the hearts of two groups was detected by microarray and qRT-PCR method and the potential functions of the differentially expressed lncRNA were analyzed by bioinformatics. Results: Compared with the filtered air group, lncRNA's expression profile was significantly altered in the rat hearts of ozone exposure group. A total of 167 lncRNA were up-regulated significantly and 64 lncRNA were down-regulated significantly. GO analysis indicated that the up-regulated lncRNA might involve in the process of regulating growth and development, and the down-regulated lncRNA might participate in nutrient catabolic. KEGG results showed that the up-regulated lncRNA might be involved in regulating the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. The down-regulated lncRNA might regulate the metabolic processes of various vitamins and main energy-supplying substances. Conclusion: Ozone sub-chronic exposure can cause changes in the expression profile of lncRNA in rat hearts, which may regulate the effects of ozone sub-chronic exposure on the heart through the metabolism of energy and nutrients.
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Effects of exogenous hydrogen sulfide on pulmonary hypertension in rabbits with endotoxic shock
GUO Zan, LIU Yi-xian, QI Jie, XIAN Xiao-hui, HUANG Xin-li
CJAP. 2022, 38 (3): 264-269.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.6277.2022.050
Abstract   PDF (1539KB)
Objective: To investigate the effects of exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on pulmonary vascular reactivity induced by endotoxic shock (ES) in rabbits. Methods: In this experiment, the model of endotoxic shock (ES) was induced by injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to New Zealand big eared white rabbit through jugular vein (8 mg/0.8 ml/kg), the intervention was performed by H2S donor(sodium hydrosulfide, NaHS) which was injected intraperitoneally (28 μmol/kg) 15 min in advance. New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups(n=8):control group, LPS group, LPS+NaHS group and NaHS group. The changes of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP) were detected. The tension of pulmonary artery ring (PARs) was detected byin vitro vascular ring technique. The ultrastructure of pulmonary artery wall and pulmonary artery endothelial cells were observed by light microscope and scanning electron microscope. Results: ①MAP was decreased while MPAP was increased in rabbits after LPS injection, and ES animal model was established successfully. Compared with LPS group, mPAP of rabbit in LPS+NaHS group was decreased significantly (all P<0.05). ②Compared with normal control group, pulmonary artery of rabbits in LPS group had an increased contractile response to phenylephrine (PE) and a decreased relaxation response to acetylcholine (ACh) (both P<0.01); Compared with LPS group, pulmonary artery of rabbits in LPS+NaHS group had a decreased contractile response to PE and an increased relaxation response to ACh (both P<0.05). ③Under light microscope, the structure of vascular endothelial cells was continuous in the normal control group, the elastic fibers were intact in the subcutaneous layer, and the smooth muscle layer was arranged neatly. LPS can shed some of the pulmonary artery endothelial cells, break the subcutaneous elastic fibers, and disorder the smooth muscle layer structure. Compared with LPS group, the injury of pulmonary artery wall in LPS+NaHS group was ameliorated. The morphology of pulmonary artery wall was normal in NaHS group. It is showed that some endothelial cells of pulmonary artery were missing in LPS group by Scanning electron microscopy. The morphology of pulmonary artery endothelial cells in LPS+NaHS group was similar to that in the control group: slightly widened intercellular space was observed, and no cell exfoliation was observed. Conclusion: These results suggest that exogenous H2S can protect pulmonary artery endothelial cells and regulate the reactivity changes of pulmonary artery during ES, which may be one of the mechanisms reducing PAH in ES rabbits.
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Potential molecular mechanisms of QiZhenYuanDan in treatment of atherosclerosis based on network pharmacology
LI Lin-fang, LYU Xin-yu, QIU Yu-ling, KONG De-xin
CJAP. 2022, 38 (3): 273-278.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.6230.2022.052
Abstract   PDF (1855KB)
Objective: By means of network pharmacology, potential targets and molecular pathways of QiZhenYuanDan in the treatment of atherosclerosis (AS) were studied. Methods: TCMSP database was used to obtain the main active components and target information of Astragali Radix, Fructus Ligustri Lucidi, Corydalis Rhizoma and Salvia Miltiorrhiza in QiZhenYuanDan. Disease targets were retrieved by OMIM and other databases. Molecular networks were constructed using Cytoscape. STRING database was searched and PPI network diagram was drawn to obtain the key targets of QiZhenYuanDan in the treatment of AS; and the targets were uploaded to Metascape data platform for GO and KEGG analysis. Results: There were 118 targets of intersection between QiZhenYuanDan and AS, which were used as the predicted targets of QiZhenYuanDan on AS. GO analysis showed that the biological functions of QiZhenYuanDan in the treatment of AS targets mainly involved biological processes, such as the cytokine-mediated signaling pathway, cytokine receptor binding. KEGG pathway was mainly enriched in 155 signaling pathways, including PI3K-Akt, HIF-1, NF-κB signal pathway and inflammatory bowel disease pathway. Conclusion: Based on the result of network pharmacology study, the mechanisms of Qizhenyuandan for AS treatment was preliminarily revealed. The active ingredients such as quercetin and kaempferol act on targets such as IL-6 and PI3K-Akt, and exert anti-AS effects by inhibiting apoptosis, oxidative stress, as well as inflammatory responses. Our result indicates that QiZhenYuanDan exhibits anti-AS effect via a multi-component, multi-target and multi-route synergistic process.
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The effects of cold exposure on the ileum mechanical barrier in mice and its mechanisms
LIU Meng-meng, ZHANG Yan, ZHANG Zi-wei, YUAN Jian-bin, GUO Jing-ru
CJAP. 2022, 38 (3): 279-283.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.6235.2022.053
Abstract   PDF (1772KB)
Objective: To study the mechanisms of cold exposure mediated ileum mechanical barrier injury in mice. Methods: Twenty mice were randomly divided into the control and cold exposure groups. Both the control and cold exposure groups were placed in the climate room with (24±2)℃ and 40% humidity. The mice in the cold exposure group were moved to the climate room at (4±2)℃ every day for 3 hours for three consecutive weeks. Three weeks later, the ileum tissues of mice were collected. Changes in ileum tissue structure were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson staining. The related protein expression levels of the tight junction, inflammatory cytokines, and the NF-κB pathway were detected by Western blot. Results: Compared with the control group, the circular muscle layer of the ileum in cold exposed mice became thin, a large number of inflammatory cells infiltrated, the length of villi became short, the depth of recess was increased, and tissue fibrosis appeared. The expression levels of ideal tight junction-associated proteins in cold exposed mice were decreased significantly (P<0.05), while the protein expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and phosphorescent p65 were increased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: Cold exposure can damage the tight junction of the mouse ileum, destroy the integrity of the mechanical barrier and activate the NF-κB signaling pathway to promote the occurrence of the inflammatory response.
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TECHNICAL NOTES
Construction and evaluation of a gradient stress model of PC12 cells induced by corticosterone
LI Ming-zhe , XU Long-fei , CHEN Zhao-li , WANG Xin-xing , PU Ling-ling, LIU Wei-li , WANG Tian-hui
CJAP. 2022, 38 (3): 284-288.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.6286.2022.036
Abstract   PDF (915KB)
Objective: A gradient stress model of PC12 cells induced by corticosterone was established to provide a basis for the evaluation and regulation of cell stress. Methods: The effect of corticosterone on cell viability was observed by measuring PC12 cell viability at different concentrations of corticosterone (0~1 000 μmol/L) after different intervention times (8~48 h) to screen the cell models for optimal intervention conditions. Key stress indicators (MDA, SOD, NADH, LDH) were measured spectrophotometrically and microscopically to evaluate the models. Results: When the concentration of corticosterone was below 200 μmol/L and the intervention time was 12 h, the cell viability was below half inactivation rate, which could reduce the confounding factors due to the decrease of cell viability in each group. Compared with the blank control group, corticosterone increased the levels of MDA, NADH and LDH,and decreased the levels of SOD in the model group in a concentration-dependent manner (P<0.01), which was consistent with the construction of the gradient stress model. Conclusion: A gradient stress injury model of PC12 cells was successfully established, with intervention concentrations of 0 μmol/L, 25 μmol/L, 50 μmol/L, 100 μmol/L, 150 μmol/L and 200 μmol/L corticosterone at an intervention time of 12 h. The degree of stress injury of the cell model was increased gradually, which could be used as a basis and object for conducting cell stress injury assessment and regulation experiments.
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BRIEF REPORTS
Effects of incremental exercise on ventilation and heart rates of people at different altitudes
ZHANG Yu jiao, SHI Tong, LI Ting, DANG Xiang chen, LU Jun yu, CHEN Xue wei, MA Qiang
CJAP. 2022, 38 (3): 204-206.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.6278.2022.045
Abstract   PDF (904KB)
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Effects of vibration training on activation characteristics of lower limb skeletal muscle and physiological load in middle aged and elderly people aged 50-65
LIANZhi qiang, LIU Shan yun, LU Jie ming, ZHOU Lu xing, JI Xue ying
CJAP. 2022, 38 (3): 217-219.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.6224.2022.044
Abstract   PDF (937KB)
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Effects of beta adrenergic receptor in hippocampal dentate gyrus on spatial learning and memory in sleep deprived rats and its mechanisms
LYU Jing, WANG Cong min, LIU Xin, YAN Ji lin
CJAP. 2022, 38 (3): 237-240.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.6225.2022.048
Abstract   PDF (1673KB)
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Changes of miRNA expression profile and biomarkers in Sjogren's syndrome complicated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
ZHAO Shan, ZHANG Hong, MEI Jian, BI Dan yan
CJAP. 2022, 38 (3): 269-272.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.6247.2022.051
Abstract   PDF (3507KB)
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Chinese Association for Physiological Sciences Academy of Military Medical Sciences Institute of Health and Environmental Medicine
Associate Sponsor
Institute of Basic Medical Sciences
Editor in Chief
WANG Hai
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Editorial Board,Chinese Journal of Applide Physiology;Dali Dao,Tinanjin 300050,China



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