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  • Table of Content
      28 July 2019, Volume 35 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    ORIGINAL ARTICLES
    The effects of Sestrin2 on apoptosis of heat-exposed lung epithelial cells and its mechanism
    GAO Xiu-jie, WANG Shang, LIU Wei-li, WANG Kun, CHEN Zhao-li, WANG Xin-xing
    CJAP. 2019, 35 (4): 289-292.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5741.2019.060
    Abstract   PDF (1523KB) ( 301 )
    Objective: To investigate the protective effects of Sestrin2 protein on lung epithelial Beas-2B cells in the heat-exposure environment and its mechanism. Methods: Lung epithelial Beas-2B cells were cultured at 37℃, 39℃, 40℃ and 41℃ respectively. Cells were harvested at different times (0, 3, 6 and 12 h) after pancreatin digestion. The expressions of Sestrin2, superoxide dismutase(SOD), reactive oxygen species(ROS), cell mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis rate of cells were detected by Western blot, fluorescence spectrophotometer and flow cytometry, respectively. Gene expression sequence was cloned into high expression plasmid pcDNA3.1+. Beas-2B cells were transfected by Lipfectamine 2000 to construct Sestrin2 and SOD high expression cells. The changes of mitochondrial membrane potential and cell apoptosis were observed in the Sestrin2 and SOD high expression cells. Results: With the increase of temperature, the expression level of Sestrin2 protein in heat treatment group was decreased compared with the control group. When Beas-2B cells were exposed to 41℃, the ROS level was increased, mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased significantly and apoptosis rate was increased at different time points. After high expression of Sestrin2 and SOD in the Beas-2B cells, the expression level of ROS was decreased and the change tendency of mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased, and the apoptosis rate was reduced at 41℃ exposure. Conclusion: Sestrin2 can alleviate the apoptosis of lung epithelial cells induced by heat exposure through mitochondrial membrane potential and SOD, which has protective effect on lung epithelial Beas-2B cells.
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    The protective effects of vitamin E on lung injury caused by high temperature and PM2.5 in COPD rats
    LIU Jiang-tao, LUO Bin, HE Xiao-tao, LI Lan-yu, XU Sheng-gang
    CJAP. 2019, 35 (4): 293-296.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5788.2019.061
    Abstract   PDF (7098KB) ( 217 )
    Objective: To investigate the effects of vitamin E on the respiratory function impairment in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) after exposed to high temperature and PM2.5. Methods: Fifty-four 7-week-old SPF male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 9 experimental groups (n=6). The rat COPD model was established by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and smoke exposure. After modeled, the rats were tracheal instilled with PM2.5 (0 mg/ml, 3.2 mg/ml) and intraperitoneally injected with vitamin E at the dose of 40 mg/kg (20 mg/ml). Part of rats (high temperature groups) were then exposed to high temperature (40℃), once (8 h) a day for three consecutive days. After the last exposure, the lung function of rats was detected. The expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were detected by corresponding ELISA kits. Results: Compared with the control group, exposure of high temperature and PM2.5 could inhibit the lung function of COPD rats significantly (P<0.05); the level of MCP-1 was increased significantly in PM2.5-exposure groups (P<0.05); iNOS was increased significantly in the groups of high temperature (P<0.05). Compared with the single-PM2.5 exposure groups, TNF-α in lung was decreased in the normal temperature health group and high temperature COPD group (P<0.05) after treated with vitamin E; MCP-1 was decreased in all vitamin E-treated groups (P<0.05); the decreased iNOS only appeared in the group of high temperature with vitamin E treatment. Conclusion: High temperature and PM2.5 could aggravate the inflammation of COPD rats. As an antioxidant, vitamin E may protect the lung from the damage effects.
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    Protective effects of exogenous vitamin D on nerve injury in mice with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion
    LI Yong-rong, LI Hong
    CJAP. 2019, 35 (4): 300-303.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5794.2019.063
    Abstract   PDF (1118KB) ( 356 )
    Objective: To investigate the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-VitD3) supplementation on cerebral injury after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in mice with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Methods: Male C57BL6 mice were randomly divided into Sham group, Vehicle group and 1,25-VitD3 group, with 10 mice in each group. Vehicle group and 1,25-VitD3 group were given MCAO for 1 hour, and then killed after reperfusion for 24 hours. Mice in 1,25-VitD3 group were treated with 1,25-VitD3 at the dose of 100 ng/(kg·d) by injected intraperitoneally for 5 days before MCAO operation. Cerebral ischemic penumbra areas of each group were collected for TTC staining, RT-PCR, TTC staining and immunohistochemistry assay. The function defect of mice was evaluated by using neurological function score. Results: Compared with the sham group, the volume of cerebral infarction in Vehicle group was increased significantly, and the expressions of IL-6, IL-1beta and Gp91phox in brain tissues were increased significantly (P<0.05); compared with Vehicle group, supplementation of 1,25-VitD3 reduced the volume of cerebral infarction by about 50% in I/R mice (P<0.05), and the expressions of IL-6, IL-1beta and Gp91phox in brain tissues of 1,25-VitD3 group were decreased significantly (P<0.05). The expression of Foxp3, a T-regulatory cell marker, was significantly increased in the brain of mice (P<0.05), while the expression of Rorc, a transcription factor, was significantly decreased (P<0.05), suggesting that Th17/gamma Delta T-cell response was reduced and the number of neutrophils in the brain injury site of mice was significantly reduced (P<0.05).Conclusion: Vitamin D could alleviate the development of cerebral infarction after arterial occlusion (MCAO) reperfusion, and its mechanism may be through regulating the inflammatory response in mouse brain I/R.
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    Altered expressions of SphK1 and S1PR2 in hippocampus of epileptic rats
    DONG Yuan-yuan, WANG Lin, CHU Xu, CUI Shuai, KONG Qing-xia
    CJAP. 2019, 35 (4): 308-311.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5792.2019.065
    Abstract   PDF (2123KB) ( 302 )
    Objective: To observe the expressions of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) in hippocampus of epileptic rats and to investigate the pathogenesis of SphK1 and S1PR2 in epilepsy. Methods: One hundred and eight male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into control group (n=48) and pilocarpine (PILO) group (n=60). A robust convulsive status epilepticus (SE) was induced in PILO group rats by the application of pilocarpine. Control group rats were injected with respective of physiological saline. Pilocarpine group was randomly divided into 6 subgroups (n=8): acute group (E6 h, E1 d, E3 d), latent group (E7 d) and chronic group (E30 d, E56 d). Each subgroup has 8 control rats and 8 epileptic rats. Hippocampal tissue and brain slices were obtained from control rats and rats subjected to the Li-PILO model of epilepsy at 6 h, 1 d, 3 d,7 d,30 d and 56 d after status epilepticus (SE). Western blot technique was used to determine the expressions of SphK1 and S1PR2 in hippocampus at different point of time after pilocarpine treatment. Immunofluorescence was applied to detect the activation and proliferation of hippocampal astrocytes and the localization of SphK1 and S1PR2 in rat hippocampal astrocytes. Results: Compared with control group, the levels of SphK1 in acute phase (E3 d), latent phase (E7 d) and chronic phase (E30 d, E56 d) were significantly increased while the expressions of S1PR2 were decreased in acute phase (E3 d), latent phase (E7 d) and chronic phase (E30 d, E56 d)(P<0.05 or P<0.01). Immunofluorescence results showed astrocyte activation and proliferation in hippocampus of epileptic (E7 d) rats (P<0.05). Confocal microscopy confirmed the preferential expressions of SphK1 and S1PR2 in epileptic rat(E7 d)hippocampal astrocytes. Conclusion: The results indicate that SphK1 and S1PR2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy by regulating the activation and proliferation of hippocampal astrocytes and altering neuronal excitability.
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    Effects of 2-12alkyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2, 5-diene-1, 4-dione(DMDD)on diffuse large B lymphoma and its mechanism
    HONG Kai, JIANG Pan-ruo, KE Rui-jun, YING Jia-hao, ZHANG Xiao-yan, CHEN Jia-yu
    CJAP. 2019, 35 (4): 312-316.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5799.2019.066
    Abstract   PDF (1421KB) ( 202 )
    Objective: To investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of 2-12alkyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione(DMDD) on diffuse large B lymphoma (DLBCL).Methods: In animal experiments, 4-week-aged BALB/C mice were divided into 5 groups, 20 mice in each group. Mice were inguinal injected with DLBCL cell line OCI-LY19 cells 0.1 ml at the concention of 1 × 107 /ml. Two days later, mice were treated with DMDD at the doses of 0, 1, 5, 25 and 125 mg/kg by intragastric administration respectively, once /2 days. Ten mice of each group were killed on the 18th day of administration, and the tumor tissues were weighed. The survival time of the remaining mice were recorded. In cell experiments, OCI-LY19 cells were added to 96-well culture plates, 100 μl 1×105 cells/ml per well, then 100 μl DMDD was added to the well and the final concentrations were 0, 1, 5, 25 and 125 μmol/L respectively. The cells were treated with DMDD for 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, three wells in each group. The cell proliferation activity was detected by MTS assay. According to the results of cell proliferation experiments, OCI-LY19 cells were treated with DMDD at the concentrations of 0 μmol/L, 5 μmol/L and 25 μmol/L for 24 h. The apoptosis rate was analyzed by flow cytometry, the nuclear type was observed by hoechst staining, the mitochondrial membrane potential was observed by JC-1 staining, cytotoxicity of drugs was evaluated by LDH release experiment, gene expression and transcription were analyzed by qPCR and Western blot.Results: Compared with 0 mg/kg drug group, DMDD at the dose of 1~125 mg/kg could inhibit the growth of tumor tissue in mice and prolong their survival time (P<0.01). Cell experiments showed: in DMDD group, the proliferation activity of OCI-LY19 cells was decreased significantly and the level of apoptosis was increased significantly (P<0.01), nuclear fragmentation, agglutination, apoptotic bodies occurred and mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased, the LDH release rate was increased significantly (P<0.01), the expressions of caspase-3 and bax genes and the phosphorylation level of Ikappa B alpha in cells were up-regulated significantly, the protein expression levels of bcl-2, bcl-xL, jak2 and stat3 were inhibited significantly (P<0.01).Conclusion: DMDD can inhibit the expressions of JAK2, STAT3 and p-Ikappa B alpha in JAK2/STAT3 and NF-kappa B signal pathways, down-regulate BCL-2/BAX and activate Caspase-3, finally, activate the endogenous pathway of mitochondrial apoptosis in OCI-LY19 cells and promote the apoptosis of DLBCL cells, inhibit proliferation of OCI-LY19 cells. It has inhibitive effects on DLBCL.
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    The antioxidant system mediated by Nrf2 in C2C12 cells responding to H2O2 stimulus under different oxygen concentration
    JI Wei-xiu, ZHANG Ying
    CJAP. 2019, 35 (4): 317-321.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5773.2019.067
    Abstract   PDF (0KB) ( 271 )
    Objective: To apply hypoxia of different oxygen concentration on C2C12 cells to study the changes of Nrf2 antioxidant system under H2O2. Methods: The perfect simulative effect time and concentration of H2O2 were chosen. Cell vitality was tested after C2C12 cells cultured in 0.1 mmol/L, 0.25 mmol/L, 0.5 mmol/L, 0.75 mmol/L, 1 mmol/L and 2 mmol/L H2O2 for 1 or 2 h respectively. The C2C12 cells were divided into different oxygen concentration group: 21%O2, 12%O2, 8%O2, 5%O2 respectively. And then cells were treated with H2O2 for 1 h, and collected for determination. Immunofluorescence of Nrf2 and the protein expression of Nrf2 were detected. The expressions of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), catalase(CAT), NADPH quinine oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1), glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX-1), Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA and cellular ROS levels were tested by high quality fluorescence assay. Results: 0.5 mmol/L H2O2 for 1 h was selected as the conditions of H2O2stimulation. Compared with 21% O2 group, the expressions of Nrf2 mRNA and protein, antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2, CAT, HO-1, NQO-1, GPX-1 mRNA were increased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and ROS level was lower (P<0.01) in 12%O2 group cells; only the expression of GPX-1 mRNA was increased (P<0.05) in 8%O2 group; the expressions of Nrf2 mRNA and protein expression, antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2, NQO-1, GPX-1 mRNA were decreased significantly(P<0.05 or P<0.01), and ROS level was higher (P<0.01) in 5%O2 group. Conclusion: Hypoxia can affect the Nrf2 antioxidant system, and the different oxygen concentrations have different impact. In addition, 12% O2 for 12 h could promote the Nrf2 antioxidant system, and 5% extremely low oxygen may inhibit it.
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    Effects of different intensity interval exercise of 6 weeks on body composition of obese rats
    ZHAO Shu-qiang, SHI Hong-ju, ZHENG Ning-ning
    CJAP. 2019, 35 (4): 326-330.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5789.2019.069
    Abstract   PDF (929KB) ( 253 )
    Objective: To investigate the effects of different intensity intermittent exercise on the body function of obese rats, and to provide basis for the prevention and treatment of obesity. Methods: Eighty SD rats were randomly divided into normal diet group (n=20) and high-fat diet group (n=60). After adaptive feeding for 8 weeks, 8 normal diet rats and 32 high-fat obese rats were selected for follow-up experiments. The experimental rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=8): control diet-sedentary (CS),with ordinary feed and without any exercise; high diet-sedentary (HS), with high-fat feed feeding and without any exercise; high diet-continual exercise(HC), 60 min/day,5 days/week with 6 weeks; high diet-long time-low frequency interval exercise(HLL), 30 min/time,twice/day (intermittent 6 h), 5 days/week with 6 weeks; high diet-short time-high frequency interval exercise(HSH), 20 min/ time, 3 times/d (intermittent 3 h), 5 days/week with 6 weeks. The training intensity of rats in each exercise group was 25 m/min. After 6 weeks, rats in each groups were weighed, and resting metabolic rate(RMR), fasting blood glucose(FBG), triglyceride(TG) and other biochemical indexes were detected, and fat and muscle weight were measured. Results: Before experiment, there were no significant differences in RMR, FBG and TG in each groups(P>0.05).The body weight of HSH, HLL, HC and HS groups was higher than that of CS group (P<0.05). After the experiment, RMR of the HSH,HLL and HC groups was significantly higher than that of HS and CS groups (P<0.05), but without significant difference among the HSH,HLL and HC groups (P>0.05).The body weight of HSH, HLL and HC groups was significantly lower than that of HS group (P<0.05), but the three groups was not significant (P>0.05); perirenal fat(PF), idymis fat(EF), perirenal fat/weight(PF/W) and epididymis fat/weight(EF/W) of HSH, HLL, HC group were significantly lower than those of HS group (P<0.01), while there was no statistical difference among the three groups (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in gastrocnemius(GM) and quadricep(QF) of each group (P>0.05), gastrocnemius/weight(GM/W) and quadriceps/weight (QF/W) in HSH,HLL and HC groups were higher than those of HS group (P<0.05),while there was no significant difference among HSH,HLL and HC groups (P>0.05);FEB,TG of HSH,HLL,HC group were lower than those of CS and HS group (P<0.05),but the difference with HS group was more significant (P<0.01),there was no significant difference among training groups(P>0.05).Conclusion: 6 weeks of intermittent exercise of different intensity had a good intervention effect on the body composition of obese rats, and high diet-short time-high frequency interval exercise (HSH) may be more effective.
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    Application of energy cost in evaluating energy expenditure in multi-ball practice with table tennis players
    LI Yong-ming, LI Bo, WANG Xin-xin, WANG Yan, GU Nan
    CJAP. 2019, 35 (4): 331-335.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5778.2019.070
    Abstract   PDF (1062KB) ( 300 )
    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of applying the measure of energy cost, utilized widely in cyclic sports, in table tennis multi-ball practice. Methods: Eleven collegiate table tennis players volunteered (18±1 yrs, 177±2 cm, 71±3 kg, approximately 10 yrs’ training experience) to participate in one graded exercise test on treadmill, and two step tests (forehand and backhand, 3 min × 6, 35~85 stroke/min). A portable spirometric system and heart rate monitor were utilized for the three trials. Earlobe blood samples were collected and analyzed prior to and post the test. Energy cost was calculated for one stroke at each stroke frequency. Results: The energy cost of loop drive multi-ball practice was decreased with increased stroke frequency (P<0.05). The energy cost of forehand loop drive was higher than backhand, with the difference significant at 35, 45, 55, 65, and 85 stroke·min-1 (P<0.05). The function between energy cost and frequency were y=166.4x-0.731 (R2=0.9731), and y=33.21x-0.392 (R2=0.8423), respectively, where y was energy cost, and x was stroke frequency. Conclusion: The measure of energy cost utilized in cyclic sports could be applied to evaluate the energy expenditure in table tennis multi-ball practice of single technique, and indicate the stroke efficiency of table tennis muti-ball practice with different stroke frequencies.
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    Effects of endurance exercise on synaptic plasticity in cerebral cortex of aged rats and related regulatory mechanism
    LIU Wen-feng, LIU Shao-peng, FU Rang, WANG Zhi-yuan, KUANG He-yu, XIA Yan, TANG Chang-fa
    CJAP. 2019, 35 (4): 339-345.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5803.2019.072
    Abstract   PDF (1553KB) ( 388 )
    Objective: To understand and analyze the rules of endurance exercise on the cerebral cortex adaptive mechanism in aged rats. Methods: In this study, 3-month-old (n=20), 13-month-old (n=24) and 23-month-old (n=24) specific-pathogen free (SPF) male Sprague-Dawley Rat (SD) rats were divided into young (Y-SED), middle-aged (M-SED) and old-aged (O-SED) sedentary control group, and the corresponding Y-EX, M-EX and O-EX in the endurance exercise runner group. The 10-weeks of regular moderate-intensity aerobic exercise intervention were carried out in the endurance exercise runner group. The exercise mode is treadmill exercise (slope 0), and the exercise intensity gradually increases from 60%~65% of the maximum oxygen consumption (V·O2max) to 70%~75%, and the exercise time is 10 weeks. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining was used to detect age-related morphological changes. The expressions of superoxide dismutase(SOD) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the expressions of synapsin 1 (SYN1) and Ca2+/calmodulin- dependent protein kinases IIα (CaMK IIα) / AMP-activated protein kinase α1(AMPKα1) / mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway -related genes were detected. Results: The cerebral cortex structure of the rats in each group showed age-related aging changes, the expression of SOD in the cortex showed a gradual decline, the expression of BDNF showed an age-increasing trend, and the expression levels of SYN1 and CaMK IIα were increased with age. The changes in AMPKα1 and SirT2 and IP3R, AKT1 and mTOR mRNA levels were increased slightly in middle-aged rats and decreased in aged rats. Compared with the rats in each sedentary control group, the nucleus of the cerebral cortex was tightly arranged and the number of nuclei observed under the microscope was increased significantly in each exercise group. Exercise promoted the expressions of SOD, BDNF and synaptophysin SYN1 in the cortex of rats, and the expression levels of SOD and BDNF in aged rats were up-regulated significantly (P< 0.01). The expression level of SYN1 in rats was up-regulated significantly (P<0.05) in the young and aged rats. The expression of CaMK IIα in the cortex of middle-aged and aged rats was up-regulated (P<0.01), while the expression level of CaMK IIα in young rats was down-regulated (P<0.01). Exercise could up-regulate the expression level of AMPKα1 in the cortex of young rats (P< 0.05), but not in middle-aged and old-age rats. Exercise could up-regulate the expression of SirT2 in the cortex of rats in all age groups (P<0.05). Exercise up-regulated the expression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (IP3R)/ protein kinase B 1(AKT1) /mTOR in the cortex of rats, among which young IP3R was significantly up-regulated (P<0.01) in the young group, mTOR was significantly up-regulated in young and middle-aged group (P<0.01), and mTOR was also significantly up-regulated in the aged group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Endurance exercise up-regulates BDNF expression, regulates CaMKIIα signaling, activates AMPK signaling pathway and IP3R / AKT1 / mTOR signaling pathway, and improves synaptic plasticity in the cortex.
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    Trichloroethylene interferes with heart development of zebrafish via inhibiting Wnt signal pathway
    SHI Jia-lin, XIA Ying, HUA Yue, ZHANG Ke-jia, CHEN Tao, JIANG Yan
    CJAP. 2019, 35 (4): 346-350.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5787.2019.073
    Abstract   PDF (1197KB) ( 310 )
    Objective: To investigate the molecular mechanism of trichloroethylene (TCE) cardiac developmental toxicity on zebrafish embryos and to try to provide experimental data for related intervention. Methods: Zebrafish embryos were purchased from the National Zebrafish Resource Center. The embryos were divided into DMSO(control group), DMSO+CHIR, DMSO+XAV, TCE, TCE+CHIR and TCE+XAV groups(TCE at the concentration of 1, 10 and 100 ppb, with the DMSO as control; DMSO: Dimethyl suldoxide; CHIR: CHIR-99021, Wnt agonist; XAV: XAV-939, Wnt antagonist), 60 embryos per group. Zebrafish embryos were fed in systematic aquaculture water, 28℃. The water was replaced every 24 h and drugs were added according to the grouping scheme. The cardiac tissues were dissected and analyzed by transcriptome microarray after RNA extraction. The expressions of Wnt signaling pathway related genes were verified by q-PCR. Wnt atagonist XAV and activator CHIR were used alone or in combination to further evaluate the possibility of the Wnt signaling participating in the cardiac developmental toxicity induced by TCE. Results: Compared with control, Zebra fish embryos exposed to TCE showed a significant increase in heart defects, and the main phenotypes were abnormal atrioventricular ratio, looping defects and pericardial edema. The results of microarray profiling showed that the expressions of genes related to Wnt signaling pathway were affected significantly. The results of qPCR further confirmed that TCE inhibited the expressions of Wnt pathway target genes Axin2, Sox9b and Nkx2.5(P<0.05). Wnt agonist CHIR reduced the TCE-induced cardiac malformation rate significantly, while the addition of Wnt antagonist XAV markedly enhanced the cardiac developmental toxicity of TCE. Conclusion: Exposure to TCE leads to heart malformation in zebrafish embryos. Wnt signaling pathway may be involved in the cardiac developmental toxicity induced by TCE.
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    Preventive and therapeutic effects of safflower water extract on systemic scleroderma in mice and its mechanism
    FAN Chun-fang, ZHANG Hong-xia, TANG Yi-hao, XU Hai-huan, SONG Dong
    CJAP. 2019, 35 (4): 351-354.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5785.2019.074
    Abstract   PDF (976KB) ( 235 )
    Objective: To study the preventive and therapeutic effects of safflower water extract on systemic scleroderma (SSc) in mice and its mechanism.Methods: Sixty BALB/C mice were randomly divided into the control group, model group, prednisone group and safflower low, middle, high dose groups, 10 mice in each group.The control group was injected with normal saline, and the other five groups were subcutaneously injected with bleomycin hydrochloride with 100 μl at the concentration of 200 μg /ml on the back, once a day for 28 days to establish the SSc models.At the same time, the control group and model group were treated with normal saline (10 ml/kg), the prednisone group was treated with prednisone 4.5 mg/kg (10 ml/kg), and the low, middle, and high dose safflower groups were treated with safflower at the doses of 1.5, 3, 6 g/kg (10 ml/kg), and all groups were treated for 28 days.After 28 days, all mice were decapitated. The blood samples and back skin of the BLM injection part were collected.After that, all the tissue slices were taken to measure the dermal thickness, and the content of hydroxyproline (HYP) in the skin tissues was detected by hydrolysis method.The contents of tissue growth factor (CTGF) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β ) in the skin tissues and the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) in serum were determined by ELISA.Results: Compared with the control group, the dermal thickness of the model group was increased(P<0.05), the contents of CTGF, TGF-β and HYP in the skin tissues and the levels of IL-6 and IL-17 in the serum of the model group were increased(P<0.05); compared with the model group, the dermal thickness in the prednisone group and safflower groups was decreased (P<0.05), the levels of CTGF, TGF-β and HYP in the skin tissues and the serum levels of IL-6 and IL-17 in the prednisone group and safflower groups were decreased (P<0.05).Conclusion: Safflower water extract can improve skin condition (or dermal thickness) in SSc mice, and its mechanism may be related to reducing immune inflammatory response.
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    Effects of puerarin on rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    YANG Fei, DONG Xin-xin, GUO Yun
    CJAP. 2019, 35 (4): 355-358.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5786.2019.075
    Abstract   PDF (921KB) ( 393 )
    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effects of puerarin on rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: T2DM models were established by high fat and high glucose feeding combined with a one-time intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg). Then the rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, metformin group (MET, 40 mg/kg), puerarin low-dose group, medium-dose group and high-dose group (40, 80, 160 mg/kg), n=10. After the model was successfully established, rats were treated with corresponding drug intervention by intragastrical administration for 4 weeks. The body weight and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were measured per week, and blood samples were collected 24 h after the last administration, and serum levels of blood glucose, serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholestrol (HDL-C), serum enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr), and blood uric acid (UA) were measured. Results: As compared with normal group, the body weight was decreased after 4 weeks-intervention in the model group, and the levels of FBG, TC, TG, LDL-C, ALT, AST, BUN, SCr and UA were all increased,while HDL-C level was decreased (P<0.05). As compared with model group,the body weight was increased after 4 weeks-intervention in metformin group and puerarin groups, and the levels of FBG, TC, TG, LDL-C, ALT, AST, BUN, SCr and UA were decreased (P<0.01); meanwhile, HDL-C level was increased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: Puerarin can reduce the weight loss of T2DM rats, decrease the blood lipid and blood glucose levels of T2DM rats, which can be used to control T2DM.
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    Effects of berberine on learning and memory ability in vascular cognitive impairment rats
    WANG Ru-huan, ZHOU Ru, DING Yang, ZHOU Zhen-xing
    CJAP. 2019, 35 (4): 359-362.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5797.2019.076
    Abstract   PDF (950KB) ( 280 )
    Objective: To investigate the effects of berberine on learning and memory ability in vascular cognitive impairment rats. Methods: Sixty-eight Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group (n=10), sham operated group (n=10) and the modeling group of vascular cognitive impairment rat (n=48), then the rats in modeling group were randomly divided into four groups (n=10): vehicle group, berberine low dose group (20 mg/kg), medium dose group (40 mg/kg) and high dose group (60 mg/kg). Bilateral common carotid arteries were occluded in rats to establish vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) model. Different doses of berberine were intraperitoneally injected into the treatment group and normal saline was intraperitoneally injected into the other groups once a day for a total of 34 days. After 28 days of administration, Morris water maze was used to test the learning and memory ability of rats. After the water maze experiment, the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor alpha(TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) in the forebrain cortex were detected. Results: Compared to sham group, the escape latency in VCI group was significantly extended (P<0.01) and the times of passing through the platform were decreased remarkably (P<0.01). The levels of SOD, GSH and 5-HT in the hippocampus or anterior cortex were decreased significantly (P<0.01), while the contents of MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β and MAO were increased remarkably (P<0.01). Compared with VCI group, the escape latency in berberine-treated groups was shortened significantly (P<0.01, P<0.05) and the times of passing through the platform were increased remarkably (P<0.01, P<0.05), the levels of SOD, GSH and 5-HT were increased significantly (P<0.01), while the contents of TNF-α, IL-1β and MAO were decreased remarkably (P<0.01). Conclusion: Berberine could significantly improve the spatial learning and memory abilities of rats with vascular cognitive impairment. The mechanism may be related to the effects of berberine on the hippocampal antioxidant stress, anti-inflammatory response and the monoamine neurotransmitter system in the forebrain cortex. Berberine 60 mg/kg dose group had better effect.
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    Effects of Acorus tatarinowii Schott and its active component -5- hydroxymethylfurfural on ERK/CREB signal in hippocampus of exercise-induced fatigue rats
    CHEN Hui-hua, ZHU Mei-ju, ZHU Hong-zhu, DING Xiao-min, WANG Hui, MAO Ze-hua
    CJAP. 2019, 35 (4): 366-370.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5779.2019.078
    Abstract   PDF (1425KB) ( 254 )
    Objective: To investigate the effects of Acorus tatarinowii Schott and its active component 5- hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) on learning and memory and ERK/CREB signal in hippocampus of rats with exercise-induced fatigue. Methods: SD rats were randomly divided into normal group (A), exercise group (B), exercise + HMF low, middle and high dose treatment group (C, D, E), exercise + acorus tatarinowii Schott low, middle and high dose treatment group (F, G, H), with ten rats in each group. The rats in group C, D and E were treated with HMF at the doses of 0.10, 1.00 and 3.00 mg. kg-1 by ig. The rats in group F, G and H were treated with the extracts of Acorus tatarinowii Schott at the doses of 0.12, 1.20 and 4.80 g. kg-1 by ig. Learning and memory of rats were tested by the method of water maze experiment, and the expression levels of p-ERK1/2 and p-CREB protein in hippocampus of rats were tested by the method of Western blot in the end of the experiment. Results: The escape latencies of E and H groups were lower than those of groups B, C, D, F and G; and the numbers of plateau crossing were more than those of groups B, C, D, F and G and the expression levels of p-ERK1/2, p-CREB protein were higher than those of groups B, C, D, F and G , respectively(P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the above indexes among groups A, E and H(P>0.05) except that the expression levels of p-ERK2 protein in group E were lower than those in group A and H (P<0.05). Conclusion: Acorus tatarinowii and its active component- HMF can improve the learning and memory of rats with exercise-induced fatigue, and the mechanism is related to the up-regulation of ERK / CREB signal in hippocampus of rats with exercise-induced fatigue.
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    The effects of salidroside on the apoptosis pathway of myocardial cells in acute exhausted rats
    QIE Tao, XU Peng, ZHANG Bing-xin, CAO Xue-bin
    CJAP. 2019, 35 (4): 376-380.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5691.2019.080
    Abstract   PDF (1517KB) ( 330 )
    Objective: To investigate whether salidroside (Sal) plays a part in protecting myocardial cell through reducing the myocardial ischemia and the apoptosis pathway of both death receptors and mitochondria in acute exhausted rats. Methods: Male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=6): control group(Con), acute exhaustive swimming group (EE), low-dose and high-dose Sal pre-treatment exhaustive swimming group (SLE, SHE). Rats were treated with Sal solution (15 or 30 mg/(kg·d)) or 0.9%NaCl (3 ml/(kg·d)) by intraperitoneal injection for 15 d, respectively. The Con group did not carry out swimming training. The next day after the end of intraperitoneal administration, the rats in EE, SLE and SHE group were forced to swim until they were exhausted followed the standard of Thomas. After the end of exhaustive exercise, the rats were anesthetized and the blood samples and hearts were collected immediately. The myocardial ischemia and hypoxia area and myocardial apoptosis index (AI) were also observed. Serum ischemia modified albumin (IMA), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), brain natriuretic peptide(BNP) and myocardial cell Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) were determined. The expressions of myocardial TNF receptor superfamily member 6 (Fas), cytochrome C (Cyto-c), aspartate proteolytic enzyme-3(Caspase-3), aspartate proteolytic enzyme-8(Caspase-8), and aspartate proteolytic enzyme-9(Caspase-9) were detected. Results: Compared with the Con group, the myocardial ischemia and hypoxia area in EE group was increased significantly. The serum levels of IMA, cTnI and BNP, AI and Bax levels and cardiac Fas, Cyto-C, Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9 protein expressions of EE group were also increased significantly (P<0.01), while the protein expression of Bcl-2 in cardiac tissues was decreased significantly (P<0.01). Compared with the EE group, the myocardial ischemia and hypoxia area, serum levels of IMA, cTnI and BNP, AI and Bax levels, and the protein expressions of cardiac Fas, Cyto-C, Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9 in Sal group were all decreased significantly(P<0.01). while the protein expression of cardiac Bcl-2 in Sal group were increased significantly (P<0.01). Conclusion: Sal plays a role in protecting myocardial cell through reducing the myocardial ischemia and inhibiting myocardial cell apoptosis in exhaustive exercise rats. The mechanism of reducing myocardial cell apoptosis may be related to inhibiting the expressions of Fas, Cyto-C, Caspase-3, Caspase-8, Caspase-9 and increasing the expression of Bcl-2.
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    The changes of the expression of 2-type small conductance-Ca2+- activating-K+ (SK2) channel protein in hypertensive rat myocardium
    ZHANG Wen-fei, YANG Chang-zhen, HU Peng-cheng, CHEN Hao, XI Yue, FAN Hong-kun, ZHANG Qian, YANG Chun
    CJAP. 2019, 35 (4): 381-384.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5712.2019.081
    Abstract   PDF (1062KB) ( 169 )
    Objective: To investigate the expression of 2-type small conductance-Ca2+-activating-K+ (SK2) channel protein in hypertensive rat myocardial cells. Methods: Twelve healthy adult male SD rats were randomly divided into control group (n=5) and experimental group (n=7). The rats of experimental group were injected intraperitoneally with N’-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA 15 mg/(kg·d))while the rats of control group were injected intraperitoneally with isometrical normal saline(15 ml/(kg·d )). The body weight, blood pressure and electrocardiogram of the rats were measured every week. After 4 weeks, the rats were sacrificed to obtain hearts, and the expression of SK2 channel protein in myocardium was detected by Western blot. Results: After 4 weeks of administration, compared with the control group, the blood pressure in the experimental group was significantly elevated (P<0.05), QRS duration and R-R interval were prolonged, and the expressions of SK2 channel in the atrial and ventricular tissue of the experimental group were significantly higher than those in the control group (1.12±0.18,1.64±0.26, P < 0.05). Conclusion: The expressions of atrial and ventricular SK2 pathway are increased in hypertensive model rats. It may be one of the mechanism leading to arrhythmias in hypertensive model rats and can provide new ideas and strategies for the treatment and prognosis of hypertensive diseases.
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  2019-03-15

Sponsor
Chinese Association for Physiological Sciences Academy of Military Medical Sciences Institute of Health and Environmental Medicine
Associate Sponsor
Institute of Basic Medical Sciences
Editor in Chief
WANG Hai
Edited and Published by
Editorial Board,Chinese Journal of Applide Physiology;Dali Dao,Tinanjin 300050,China



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