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  • Table of Content
      28 November 2017, Volume 33 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    The effects of NOX4 and TGF-βinvolved in airway remodeling of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    CHEN Juan, CUI Jie-da, GUO Xiao-tong, LIU Xian-yan, ZHANG Hong
    CJAP. 2017, 33 (6): 481-487.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5601.2017.115
    Abstract   PDF (1092KB) ( 108 )
    Objective: To investigate the role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate 4 (NADPH4,NOX4) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) involve in pathogenesis of airway remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Methods: Lung tissues from 36 COPD patients and 19 patients with normal lung function were enrolled in this study. The volume of airway smooth muscle (ASM)mass was evaluated. The expressions of NOX4, collagen Ⅳ (Col Ⅳ) and TGF-β were tested by a semi-quantitative morphological and/or immunohistochemistry staining method and Western blot, and their correlations with pulmonary functions were analyzed.Results: ①Index of the percentage of the thickness of ASM/external diameter of small airway (WT%) and the percentage of the area of ASM/transverse area of small airway (WA%) were significantly higher in the COPD group than those in controls(P<0.05).②In COPD patients,epithelial cells metaplasia were found and α-SMA and Col Ⅳwere expressed in a part of epithelial cells. The expressions of α-small muscle actin (α-SMA) and Col Ⅰ were increased in COPD patients in comparison with the patients without obstructive airway disorders(P<0.05).③The expression of NOX4 in ASM and epithelial cells of COPD patients was significantly higher in comparison with the patients without COPD. The expression of NOX4 in ASM of small airway were statistically different among different COPD grade (P<0.05). Correlation analysis demonstrated that the level of NOX4 protein in ASM of small airway was inversely associated with pulmonary functions. ④The expression of TGF-β in COPD was significantly higher than that in patients without COPD. ⑤ Correlation analysis demonstrated that the level of NOX4 protein in ASM of small airway, WT% and WA% were inversely associated with pulmonary functions.Conclusion: ①The airway remodeling of COPD is characterized by increasing hyperplasia of small airway smooth muscle.②Remodeling of airway smooth muscle associats with severity of airflow limitation in COPD patients. ③The expressions of NOX4, TGF-β and α-SMA in COPD epithelial cells and small airway smooth muscle cells are significantly enhanced. The expressions of NOX4, α-SMA and TGF-β are positively correlated with the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary air flow, suggesting that TGF-β and NOX4 signaling may be involved in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease airway remodeling.
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    Expressions of synaptophysin and BDNF/Trk-B in cerebellum of APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice
    DONG Xue-fan, WANG Ting, LI Tian, JIAO Juan-juan, QU Xue-song, QI Jin-shun, YANG Wei
    CJAP. 2017, 33 (6): 488-492.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5601.2017.116
    Abstract   PDF (1251KB) ( 83 )
    Objective: To observe the expressions of synaptophysin and BDNF/Trk-B in cerebellum of APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice.Methods: The healthy 9-month old APP/PS1 male mice (n1) and the same wild type male mice(n2) were divided into two groups, APP/PS1 group and wild-type(WT) group. The expressions of synaptophysin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase B (BDNF/Trk-B) in cerebellum were determined by Western blot (n1=6; n2=6) and immunohistochemical(n1=4; n2=4).The possible synaptic changes in APP/PS1 group were observed by using electron microscopy.Results: Compared with WT group, the expressions of synaptophsin and BDNF/Trk-B in cerebellum were decreased in APP/PS1 group. Increased width of the synaptic cleft and decreased thickness of postsynaptic density were also observed.Conclusion: In APP/PS1 group, expressions of synaptophsin and BDNF/Trk-B in cerebellum were decreased; changes in ultrastructure of synapses seemed to be widespread alterations. These findings suggest a possible association between expression of BDNF/TrkB and synaptic plasticity in AD cerebellum.
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    Apelin attenuates hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertension of mice through regulation of lipid metabolism
    CHEN Ran, JIANG Pu, LIU Ling-yan, GAO Yuan, YANG Xin-xin, CAI Zhuo-chang, FAN Xiao-fang, GONG Yong-sheng, MAO Sun-zhong
    CJAP. 2017, 33 (6): 493-496.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5601.2017.117
    Abstract   PDF (1023KB) ( 161 )
    Objective: To observe the role of apelin in the prevention of pulmonary hypertension induced by hypoxia in mice.Methods: Adult male apoE gene knockout (apoE-KO) mice were exposed to isobaric hypoxic chamber (9%~11% O2, regular chow feed, 23 h/d)for 3 weeks to establish hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Thirty apoE-KO mice were randomly divided into normoxia group, hypoxia group and hypoxic with apelin (10 nmol/(kg·d), ip) group. The concentrations of high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL)and total cholesterol in plasma were detected by Elisa method. The mRNA levels of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1(ABCA1), low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), scavenger receptor class B1 (SR-B1), and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR)in liver were measured by real-time PCR. The protein level of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in lung was measured by Western blot.Results: ①The right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and the weight ratio of right ventricle (RV) to left ventricle plus septum (LV+S) of hypoxia group were significantly higher than those of normoxia group by 87% and 85% (P<0.05), respectively. RVSP and RV/(LV+S) of apelin group were significantly lower than those of hypoxia group by 39% and 33%(P<0.05), respectively. ②The plasma concentration of HDL and HDL/LDL of apelin group were significantly higher than those of hypoxia group by 21% and 20%(P<0.05), respectively. ③The mRNA levels of LDLR, SR-B1 and ABCA1 in liver of apelin group were significantly up-regulated than those of hypoxia group by 241%, 112% and 69% (P<0.05), respectively, while the mRNA level of HMGCR was down-regulated by 45% (P<0.05). ④The protein level of PPARγ in lung of apelin group was significantly up-regulated than that of hypoxia group by 47% (P<0.05).Conclusion: Apelin attenuates hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension of mice through regulation of lipid metabolism.
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    Effects of MAPKs inhibitors on GSH metabolic enzymes in rat hepatocytes
    GAO Wei-na, PU Ling-ling, WEI Jing-yu, XIN Zhong-hao, WANG Ya-wen, SHI Ta-la, LI Tian, GUO Chang-jiang
    CJAP. 2017, 33 (6): 497-500.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5601.2017.118
    Abstract   PDF (917KB) ( 27 )
    Objective: To investigate the effects of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) inhibitors on glutathione (GSH) metabolism, and to explore the pathway related to GSH metabolism.Methods: BRL rat hepatocytes were treated by c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK),p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) inhibitors:SP600125, SB203580 and PD98659, respectively, for 24 h. MTT method was used to measure hepatocytes viability. The content of GSH was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The protein expressions of JNK and phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK) was tested by Luminex method. Activities of GSH metabolic enzymes were detected by commercial kits.Results: Hepatocytes vitality was inhibited when the concentrations of SP600125, SB203580 and PD98659 were higher than 10 μmol/L, 20 μmol/L, and 40 μmol/L, respectively; SP600125 decreased the content of GSH in hepatocytes, while SB203580 and PD98659 had no effect. SP600125 reduced p-JNK protein expression, and enhanced GSH-Px activity significantly.Conclusion: JNK MAPK pathway takes part in the GSH metabolism in hepatocytes.
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    Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from arrhythmogenic right ventricular disease patient
    JIANG Bin, WANG Guo-qing, LI Hong-xia, JIANG Wen-ping, CHEN Tao, JIANG Yan
    CJAP. 2017, 33 (6): 503-507.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5601.2017.120
    Abstract   PDF (1917KB) ( 83 )
    Objective: To establish the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC).Methods: The fibroblasts were isolated from ARVC patient and DNA mutation sites were confirmed. We reprogrammed the patient fibroblasts to pluripotency by sendaiviral transduction with defined pluripotency factors. Then, we evaluated the pluripotency of ARVC-iPSCs by performing the immunofluorescence analysis, real-time PCR and 3 germ layer formation assay. We also induced the ARVC-iPSCs into cardiac specific differentiation by regulating Wnt signaling pathway.Results: Apart from alkaline phosphatase positive staining, iPSCs derived from ARVC patients expressed pluripotent related genes and embryonic stem cell marker OCT4, SSEA4 and TRA-1-81. Embryonic body formation in vitro and teratoma test in vivo demonstrated that ARVC-iPSCs could differentiate into all three germ layers. After in vitro cardiac differentiation, ARVC-iPSC could be successfully induced to spontaneously beating mass with cTNT staining positive.Conclusion: Induced pluripotent stem cell was successfully established by integration free sendai virus from dermal fibroblast of patients with ARVC. It would provide the valuable experimental model to study the molecular mechanism of ARVC.
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    Effects of miR-449a on proliferation and migration of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7
    WANG Hong-lei, XIAO Yi, WU Li, MA Da-chang
    CJAP. 2017, 33 (6): 508-513.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5601.2017.121
    Abstract   PDF (1931KB) ( 118 )
    Objective: To study the effects of knockdown of miR-449a on the proliferation and migration of human breast cancer cell line Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7).Methods: Using miRNA chip screening of the differential expressions of miRNA in human breast cancer cell MCF-7 and normal breast cells MCF-10A. The inhibitor of miR-449a was synthesized by chemical and detected by real-time PCR after transfection aimed to verify the expression. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to detect the ability of cell proliferation after transfection with miR-449a inhibitor. Scratch assay was used to detect cell migration of MCF-7, and cell invasion ability was showed by transwell assay; The MCF-7 cell proliferation and migration related proteins, β-catenin and E-cadherin, were detected by Western blot. The potential target gene of miR-449a was predicted by bioinformatics software, and Notch homolog 1 (Notch 1) was proved to be the target gene of miR-449a by luciferase assay.Results: MCF-7 and MCF-10a cells were collected separately, and miRNA chip results showed that the level of miR-449a in MCF-7 cells was significantly higher than that of MCF-10A. In this study, the cells were divided into mock group, negative control group (NC group) and treatment group, the MCF-7 cells were collected before and after treatment and CCK-8 results showed that knockdown of miR-449a decreased MCF-7 cell proliferation ability significantly. Scratch assay results showed that downregulated miR-449a was related to the decreased metastasis of MCF-7 cells. Transwell results showed that knockdown of miR-449a inhibited the invasion of MCF-7 cells. Western blot showed the expression of β-catenin was decreased and the expression of E-cadherin was increased after knockdown of miR-449a. Luciferase assay showed that miR-449a could significantly decrease the luciferase activity of Notch homolog 1-untranslated region (Notch 1-3'-UTR) plasmid (P<0.01).Conclusion: Inhibition of miR-449a in breast cancer cell line MCF-7 can significantly inhibit the proliferation and migration of cancer cells, which may be achieved by decreasing the expression of Notch 1 protein.
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    Regulation and mechanism of miR-148a on cardiomyocyte differentiation induced by 5-aza in mesenchymal stem cells
    JIANG Chang-ke, GONG Fang
    CJAP. 2017, 33 (6): 514-518.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5601.2017.122
    Abstract   PDF (1418KB) ( 112 )
    Objective: To investigate the expression of miR-148a in the process of myocardial differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) induced by 5-azacytidine (5-aza) and study the effects of miR-148a on myocardial differentiation of hMSCs.Methods: The immunofluorescence analysis was used to detect the expressions of the associated mark genes of cardiac specific protein (α-MHC) in the process of myocardial differentiation of hMSCs induced by 5-aza. qRT-PCR and Western blot were used to analysis the expressions of miR-148a and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) after myocardial differentiation of hMSCs, respectively. The expression of α-MHC after transfection with synthetic miR-148 mimics and miR-148a inhibitor was examined by Western blot. We used bioinformatics analysis to predict the potential target of miR-148a, and the dual luciferase report gene system was used to verify the predication. After co-transfected with DNMT1 shRNA and miR-148a inhibitors, hMSCs were used to explore the regulatory role and mechnism of miR-148a in the process of myocardial differentiation of hMSCs.Results: α-MHC was increased significantly after induced by 5-azacytidine. miR-148a was increased significantly in cardiomyocyte differentiation of hMSCs, while the gene and protein expression levels of DNMT1 were decreased significantly in this progress (P<0.01). The expression of α-MHC was up-regulated significantly in hMSCs when miR-148a was induced into cardiomyocyte differentiation and overexpressed. Instead, downregulation of miR-148a suppressed α-MHC expression (P<0.01). Knockdown of DNMT1 blocked the role of miR-148a in differentiation of hMSCs.Conclusion: miR-148a was upregulated in cardiomyocyte differentiation of hMSCs, and miR-148a promoted myocardial differentiation of hMSCs via targeting DNMT1.
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    Effect of NaHS on ATP-induced P2X receptor expression in rat microglia
    MA Jie, GUO Kang, LV Lin-ya, LI Xin-juan, WANG Lu, WEI Lin-yu, ZHAO Hong-gang, LI Dong-liang
    CJAP. 2017, 33 (6): 519-523.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5601.2017.123
    Abstract   PDF (987KB) ( 69 )
    Objective: To observed the effect of sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS), a donor of H2S on the cell viability,the membrane permeability and the expression of P2X7 receptor induced by adenosine triphosphate(ATP) in rat microglia.Methods: Rat microglia in logarithmic growth phase was randomly divided into 4 groups. In control group, the cells were cultured without ATP treatment. In ATP group, the cells were treatment with ATP after cultured for 24 hours. In NaHS+ATP group, the cells were incubated with NaHS for 30 min before ATP, and NaHS always existed in the reaction system. In KN-62+ATP group, the cells were pretreated with KN-62 for 30 min, the others were as the same as NaHS+ATP group. The cell viability was detected by MTT. Fluorescent dyes YO-PRO-1 was used to observe the membrane permeability. The expression of P2X7 receptor was examined by immunofluorescence staining.Results: ① Compared with control group, the cell viability dropped after treatment with ATP (1、3、5、10 mmol/L) for 3 hours. When pre-incubation with NaHS(200 μmol/L), the cell viability was apparently higher than that of ATP alone group(P<0.01), while 400 μmol/L had no further beneficial.②The YO-PRO-1 fluorescence intensity was obviously elevated by ATP in rat microglia, but this effect was counteracted by NaHS pretreatment (P<0.01). ③ The expression of P2X7 receptor protein was significantly increased after ATP(3 mmol/L) for 3 h. While the expression upregulation of P2X7 receptor protein induced by ATP was significantly counteracted by pretreating with NaHS(200 μmol/L) (P<0.01).Conclusion: NaHS could reduce the expression of P2X7 receptor, decrease membrane permeability, and increase the cell viability in rat microglia injured by ATP. So the cytoprotection of hydrogen sulfide may be related to the expression and function of P2X7 receptor.
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    The relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels and atrial fibrillation early recurrence after paroxysmal atrial fibrillation radiofrequency catheter ablation
    ZHAO Yue-xiang, SHAN Zhao-liang, GUO Hong-yang, LIN Kun, GUO Jian-ping, WANG Yu-tang
    CJAP. 2017, 33 (6): 526-530.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5601.2017.125
    Abstract   PDF (903KB) ( 91 )
    Objective: To prospectively clarify the predictive value of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) on the risk for recurrent atrial arrhythmia in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) population who accepted radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) of atrial fibrillation (AF).Methods: There were 57 consecutive patients (53.32±9.98 years; 42 males) with drug-refractory PAF who underwent RFCA were included. Plasma levels of hsCRP and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) were measured on admission and first five days after RFCA. Twenty-five patients (43.86%) had early recurrence of atrial fibrillation (ERAF).Results: Compared to patients without ERAF (no-AF-recurrence group), baseline hsCRP levels had no significant difference in patients with ERAF (AF recurrence group). There were no significant differences in the peak hsCRP and hs-cTnT levels between no-AF-recurrence group and AF recurrence group. However, change of hsCRP level was significantly correlated with change in hs-cTnT level in patients undergoing RFCA (r=0.268, P=0.044).Conclusion: Among those AF patients undergoing ablation, change of hsCRP level could be for the myocardial injury related to RFCA procedure, which may not be a risk factor to predict ERAF. The variety of hsCRP level may be related to the degree of myocardial injury induced by RFCA.
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    Protective effects of short-term and long-term exercise preconditioning on myocardial injury in rats
    MENG Dan, LI Peng, HUANG Xiong, JIANG Ming-hong, CAO Xue-bin
    CJAP. 2017, 33 (6): 531-534.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5601.2017.126
    Abstract   PDF (977KB) ( 92 )
    Objective: To study the role and mechanism of myocardial apoptosis after short-term and long-term exercise preconditioning.Methods: Forty-eight male SD rats were randomly divided into control group (C), exhaust group (E), short-exercise preconditioning (S-EP) and long-term exercise preconditioning group (L-EP). Short-term and long-term exercise preconditioning were conducted for 3 days and 3 weeks of repeated intermittent swimming training program. The changes of myocardial cells were observed under light microscope. The serum levels of ischemia-modified albumin(IMA) and creatine kinase-isoenzyme(CK-MB) were detected by ELISA. Real time fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α),Caspase-8, Caspase-3 genes and proteins in myocardial tissue. The apoptosis of cardiomyocytes was observed by TUNEL method.Results: Compared with group C, group E had serious myocardial injury. The levels of serum IMA, CK-MB and the expressions of TNF-α, Caspase-8 and Caspase-3 in myocardium were increased (P<0.05). Compared with group E, serum CK-MB and TNF-α and Caspase-8 mRNA in S-EP group were significantly lower than those in group E (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in serum IMA and Caspase-3 mRNA and protein (P>0.05). The levels of serum IMA, CK-MB and TNF-α, Caspase-8 and Caspase-3 mRNA in L-EP group were significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.05). The apoptosis of cardiomyocytes in group E was obvious. Short-term and long-term exercise preconditioning could inhibit apoptosis. Compared with S-EP group, the apoptosis of L-EP group was significantly decreased.Conclusion: Short-term and long-term exercise preconditioning can reduce myocardial injury after exhaustive exercise, but short-term exercise preconditioning does not alter the expression of Caspase protease. Long-term exercise preconditioning significantly inhibits Caspase-8, 3 mRNA expression and reduces protein synthesis. The inhibitive effects of long-term exercise preconditioning on myocardial cell apoptosis were stronger than those of short-term exercise preconditioning.
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    Effects of the maca extract on the ultrastructures of mitochondria in the spinal nerve cell and exercise endurance
    YU Fa-rong, YANG Bo, LI Zuo-ping, LIAN Xiu-zhen, XIE Ming-ren, LI Deng-lou, ZHANG Shi-shuang
    CJAP. 2017, 33 (6): 535-538.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5601.2017.127
    Abstract   PDF (912KB) ( 95 )
    Objective: To investigate the effects of maca extract on the ultrastructures of mitochondria in the spinal nerve cell and exercise endurance.Methods: The Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, including the control group (no swimming), the swimming group (free swimming), and 3 treatment groups treated with the maca extract at the doses of 4.0, 5.3 and 8.0 g/kg body weight. The animals in swimming and treatment groups were then for free swimming in the circulating water flow daily for 15 days. On the 16th day after swimming endurance, the spinal and muscular tissues were collected from all groups. The mitochondrial ultrastructures of the neurons of the spinal cells were observed with the projection electron microscope, and the levels of the glycogen, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and Ca2+ in muscle tissues were determined by the RIA method.Results: When rats were treated with maca extract (at 4.0, 5.3, 8.0 g/kg body weight), the total swimming time and the swimming duration before sinking were increased by 19.83%, 60.28%, 77.55%, and 55.34%, 73.91%, 94.47%, respectively, compared with the simple swimming group(P<0.01), while the sinking times were decreased by 34.35%, 51.18% and 57.96%, compared with those of the swimming group. Also, the levels of SOD, GSH-Px, and muscle glycogen in three treatment groups were enhanced by 5.12%, 22.74%, 52.53%, 44.22%, 77.79%, 98.45%(P<0.01), and 35.08%, 47.83%,81.88% (P<0.01)respectively over the swimming rats without treatment, but the MDA content and the Ca2+ levels were reduced by 20.10%, 31.49% 38.72%, and 6.42%, 17.58%, 26.35%,compared with the simple swimming group(P<0.01). In addition, compared to the swimming group, the mitochondrial densities of volume (VD), surface (SD) and numbers (ND) of spinal nerve cells in rats treated with maca extract (4.0, 5.3, 8.0 g/kg body weight) were reduced by 7.79%, 18.18%, 31.17%, 16.95%, 27.34%, 43.31% and 13.51%, 23.19%, 43.15%, respectively.Conclusion: Our results demonstrated the protective effects of maca extract on the mitochondria of spinal cell and suggested that maca extract could improve the muscle antioxidant activity by increasing the levels of SOD, GSH-Px, and muscle glycogen.
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    The protective effects of Haematococcus pluvialis on the exercise-induced myocardial injury in rat
    ZHOU Hai-tao, CAO Jian-min, GONG Ping, NIU Yan-long, WANG Can, WANG Biao
    CJAP. 2017, 33 (6): 539-543.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5601.2017.128
    Abstract   PDF (916KB) ( 86 )
    Objective: To study the protective effects of Haematococcus pluvialis (H. pluvialis) on myocardial injury of rats induced by endurance and intensive exercise.Methods: The model was based on intensive endurance training. Sixty-five male aged 42 days Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups:control group (C group), general training group (M group), low dose H. pluvialis + training group (HM I group), middle dose H. Pluvialis + training group (HM Ⅱ group), high dose H. pluvialis + training group (HM Ⅲ group). Each group included 12 rats, and the rats were assigned to go on a 42-day swimming training regime. Professional gavage were taken daily. The rats in HM I, HM Ⅱ and HM Ⅲ group were treated with H. pluvialis at the doses of 0.067,0.133 and 0.4 g/kg by ig at 5 ml/kg and the normal saline were given to other groups. After a 42-day swimming training regime, myocardial injury markers such as serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), myocardial superoxide dismutase(SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected, the biochemical indexes such as serum and myocardial endothelin (ET) and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP)were detected.Results: Serum ALT, lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), creatine kinase(CK), a-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase(a-HBDH), ET, myocardial MDA and ET in M group were significantly higher than those in C group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The myocardial SOD activity and the myocardial and serum CGRP in M group were significantly lower than those in C group(P<0.05 or P<0.01). The contents of serum ALT, LDH and CK in HM groups were lower than those in the M group but there was no significant difference between the two groups. Compared with M group, H. pluvialis could decrease the levels of serum a-HBDH, ET and myocardial ET in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The above mentioned three parameters in HM Ⅲ group were lower than those in HM I group (P<0.05). H. pluvialis could decrease the levels of myocardial MDA and increase the levels of myocardial SOD activity and serum or myocardial CGRP in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05 or P<0.01).Conclusion: The different doses of H.pluvialis can effectively reduce the free radicals caused by endurance and intensive training and enhance the immune function. Meanwhile H.pluvialis is able to guarantee the relative balance in ET an CGRP`s concentration. Therefore, the myocardial lipid peroxidation and myocardial injury are encumbered. Additionaly, high dose of H. pluvialis is proven to be the most effective.
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    Effects of exhaustive exercise on the expression of PHB1 and the function of mitochondria in rats
    FANG Wen, LI Ze, LIU Xiao-hua, LIU Zhao-ming, DUN Yi, FENG Hong
    CJAP. 2017, 33 (6): 544-549.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5601.2017.129
    Abstract   PDF (918KB) ( 140 )
    Objective: To observe the changes of Prohibitin1(PHB1) contents in rat brain, heart, skeletal muscle tissue and mitochondria with acute exhaustive exercise and the effects of acute exhaustive exercise on mitochondrial function in rats, to explore the relationship among PHB1 and mitochondrial function and energy metabolism.Methods: Acute exhaustive exercise model:The rats carried acute exhaustive exercise after 8 weeks of feeding. The heart, brain and skeletal muscle samples were collected and the mitochondria were collected to detect the changes of respiratory function and reactive oxygen species(ROS). The expression of PHB1 protein in tissues and mitochondria was detected by Western blot. The ATP content in the organs and the activity of complexes (ATP synthase activity) in mitochondria were measured by spectrophotometer.Results: ① The ATP contents of brain, myocardium and skeletal muscle were decreased significantly after acute exhaustive exercise. ②The activities of complex V, respiratory control rates (RCR) and ROS in mitochondria of brain, myocardium and skeletal muscle were decreased significantly after acute exhaustive exercise, respiration rate state 4(ST4) was increased significantly, at the same time, respiration rate state 3(ST3) had no significant difference. ③ The expression of PHB1 in mitochondria of skeletal muscle was decreased significantly after acute exhaustive exercise, while there was no significant change in PHB1 in myocardial tissue and mitochondria. ④ The correlation analysis showed that the ATP contents in the brain, myocardium and skeletal muscle were positively correlated with the activity of complex V and the expression of PHB1 after acute exhaustive exercise.Conclusion: After acute exhaustive exercise, the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was reduced, the ROS production was increased, the expression of PHB1 was decreased, the ATP content and the activity of complex V were decreased in the brain and skeletal muscle of rats. Acute exhaustive exercise reduced the expression of PHB1 in mitochondria, decreased mitochondrial function, and reduced energy metabolism.
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    Therapeutic effects of Chai Qin Cheng Qi decoction on severe acute pancreatitis complicated liver damage in rats and its mechanisms
    DANG Lin, ZHANG Xiao-qin, LIU Fang, XU Xiao-fan, LI Fang-fang, WEI Xu, ZHANG Hong
    CJAP. 2017, 33 (6): 550-554.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5601.2017.130
    Abstract   PDF (924KB) ( 98 )
    Objective: To study the effects of Chai Qin Cheng Qi Decoction(CQCQD)(Traditional Chinese Medicine)on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP)complicated liver damage in rats.Methods: Seventy-two SD rats were randomly divided into three groups(n=24):Sham group, SAP group and CQCQD treatment group. SAP model was induced by retrograde injection with sodium taurocholate. The rats in CQCQD group received treatment with CQCQD. After modeling 1 h, 5 h, 10 h, pancreas and liver histopathological changes were observed. The serum levels of interleukin-6(IL-6), amylase(AMS), alanine aminotransferase(ALT) and aspartate transaminase(AST) were detected. IL-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1(MCP-1)mRNA in pancreas and liver were assayed.Results: Compared with sham group, the activities of AMS,ALT and AST and the serum level of IL-6 in SAP group were increased significantly. The levels of MCP-1 and IL-6 mRNA in pancreas and liver tissue were increased (P<0.05). Compared with SAP group, the activities of AMS,ALT and AST and the level of IL-6 in CQCQD group were reduced significantly (P<0.05). The pancreas and liver tissue pathological damage alleviated. The levels of IL-6 and MCP-1mRNA in pancreas and liver were decreased significantly(P<0.05).Conclusion: MCP-1 takes part in the progression of SAP complicated liver damage; CQCQD can significantly inhibit the expression of pancreas and liver MCP-1, alleviate pathological damage of pancreas and liver in SAP and play a therapeutic role in SAP complicated liver damage.
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    Therapeutic effects of Dunhuang Liaofengxushouruo decoction on chronic heart failure in rats
    WU Guo-tai, DU Li-dong, CHEN Zhen-he, LIN Xing-yao, LI Jin-tian, LI Fang
    CJAP. 2017, 33 (6): 558-563.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5601.2017.132
    Abstract   PDF (2006KB) ( 94 )
    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effects and mechanism of Dunhuang Liaofengxushouruo decoction (LXD) (Traditional Chinese Medicine) on chronic heart failure(CHF) in rats.Methods: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal group(n=8):model group, captopril group and LXD(Traditional Chinese Medicine) high, medium and low dose group. Except the normal group, the rats were intravenous injected with adriamycin 2.5 mg/kg in one day for 6 weeks, the captopril rats were intragastric administrated by captopril 25 mg/kg, LXD high, medium and low dose groups were intragastric administrated by LXD of 80, 40, 20 g/kg for 6 consecutive weeks. The rats breathing, coat color, activity, body weight(BW) and time of exhaustive swimming were measured; Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP), maximal rate of left ventricular pressure (+dp/dtmax or -dp/dtmax)of each rat were examined by Power Lab. The levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were measured; The rats were sacrificed and hearts removed for separation of left and right ventricle, the antioxidant activity and ventricular mass index were measured, left ventricular myocardium was administrated by 4% paraformaldehyde, HE staining, morphological changes were observed under microscope.Results: Body weight of each group decreased, and time of exhaustive swimming decreased after modeling (P<0.01). At 28 days after administration, BW in high and middle dose of LXD groups were increased and the swimming time of rats in LXD high dose group was increased (P<0.05).At 42 days, BW in all of LXD groups were increased and the exhaustive swimming time of high and middle dose of LXD were prolonged (P<0.05), MAP was decreased and LVSP, +dp/dtmax or -dp/dtmax were increased in LXD high and middle groups. The LVEDP was decreased in high dose of LXD group(P<0.05,P<0.01). The levels of creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in middle and low dose of LXD groups were decreased(P<0.05,P<0.01), and the serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum in LXD high and middle dose groups were lower. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum were increased in all of LXD groups, and the LVMI and RVMI were decreased in high and middle dose of LXD groups(P<0.05,P<0.01). The pathological results showed that myocardial fiber arrangement and myocardial interstitial edema phenomenon were obviously improved in high dose of LXD group and CMD decreased.Conclusion: Therapeutic effect of LXD on CHF by doxorubicin-induced in rats is confirmed, the mechanisms are associated with improved hemodynamics and myocardial tissue.
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    Effects of ferulic acid on the expressions of nephrin and podocin in podocytes of diabetic rats
    WANG Xu-tao, PAN Ding-yi, GUO Wei, CHEN Si-si, ZHOU Bin, YANG Jun-jie, QI Min-you
    CJAP. 2017, 33 (6): 564-567.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5601.2017.133
    Abstract   PDF (1417KB) ( 67 )
    Objective: To investigate the effects of ferulic acid (FA) on the streptozocin (STZ) -induced kidney injury in diabetic rats and its possible mechanisms.Methods: Diabetes was induced in male SD rats by an injection of STZ (40 mg/kg,i.v.). After 72 hours, blood glucose levels were detected and blood glucose levels exceeded 16.7 mmol/L were diagnosed as diabetic model rats. Diabetic model rats were randomly divided into model group and FA group, ten animal in each group. Another 10 healthy male SD rats were treated as control group. The rats in FA group were treated with FA (100 mg/kg, i.g.,qd) from the 5th week since the diabetic rats model was successfully established and lasted for 8 weeks. The levels of blood glucose, body weight, organ coefficient of kidney, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were tested. HE staining was employed to observe the pathological changes of the renal tissue. Immunohistochemistry was employed to determine the protein of nephrin and podocin.Results: Compared to control group, the levels of blood glucose, organ coefficient of kidney, blood urea nitrogen(BUN) and serum creatinine(sCr) were increased significantly. Renal cells from model group rats showed atrophied and disordered after HE staining and interstitial proliferation were also appeared in renal tissue of the model group. Meantime, the levels of nephrin and podocin protein were obviously decreased. These changes were significantly attenuated in the model group treated with FA.Conclusion: FA can evidently ameliorate renal damage in rats with diabetic nephropathy induced by STZ, which might be related to increase the level of nephrin and podocin protein.
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    Ameliorative effects and the mechanism of lyceum barbarum polysaccharide on insulin resistance of HepG2 cell
    XU Tuo, LING Hong-yan, LONG Jia, HE Jian-qin, YANG Si-si, ZHU Ze-mei, YAN Can-qun, FENG Shui-dong
    CJAP. 2017, 33 (6): 568-571.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5601.2017.134
    Abstract   PDF (1242KB) ( 144 )
    Objective: To observe the effects of lyceum barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on insulin resistance of HepG2 cells and investigate its possible mechanism.Methods: IR-HepG2 cell model was induced with high glucose and high insulin in combination for 24 hours,with 104/vaccination in the 96-well plates, hole density after adherent cells (30 μg/ml、100 μg/ml、300 μg/ml) LBP cultivate 48 h, 200 μl/hole, each all had four holes. The effects of LBP at different concentrations on HepG2 cell activity and insulin resistance were tested. Intracellular malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were detected. The expressions of related proteins in insulin signal transduction pathways such as insulin receptor substrate-2(IRS-2), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase(PI3-K), protein kinase B(Akt) and glucose transport-2(GLUT2) were determined.Results: Compared with normal control group, the content of MDA was increased significantly and the activity of SOD and the expression levels of IRS-2,PI-3K,Akt and GLUT2 were decreased significantly in the IR model group. Compared with IR model group, medium and high concentrations of LBP decreased the content of MDA and increased the activity of SOD and the expression levels of IRS-2, PI-3K, Akt and GLUT2 in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells. MTT showed that at the same time, the OD value gradually decreased with the increase of LBP's concentration; under the same concentration of LBP, the OD value also gradually decreased with the extension of time, which indicated that LBP inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells with time and concentration-dependent manner. Glucose consumption experiment indicated that medium and high concentration of LBP could increase the glucose consumption of insulin-resistant HepG2 cells significantly, but low concentration of LBP had no significant impacted on glucose consumption of insulin-resistant HepG2 cells.Conclusion: Medium and high concentration of LBP can improve insulin resistance of HepG2 cell, its mechanisns may be associated with decreasing the level of oxidative stress and increasing the protein expressions of insulin signaling pathway.
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    Immediate-early c-fos and tyrosine hydroxylase protein expression in different brain regions in high-fat induced obesity in mice
    XIN Xue, YANG Zheng, YANG Hui-di
    CJAP. 2017, 33 (6): 572-576.   DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5601.2017.135
    Abstract   PDF (1393KB) ( 77 )
    Objective: To examine brain dopamine expression in chronic high-fat diet(HFD)-induced obese mice.Methods: Ten male mice were fed by a high-fat diet (HF:45% of calories from fat) for 12 weeks and then classified as HFD group. Ten male mice were fed a low-fat diet (LF:10% of calories from fat) and used as control group (NCD). In the 10th week, the blood of the caudal vein was collected to determine the basal blood glucose level after both groups mice were fast for 12 h. Intraperitoneal (IP) glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance (ITT) were performed in HFD and NCD mice in the 12th week. Animals were sacrificed after fasting for 4 hours at the 12th week. Brain tissues were processed for Fos-ir and TH-ir by immunohistochemistry.Results: After 12 weeks of feeding, body weight was significant higher in HFD mice than that in NCD ones. During GTT and ITT, HFD mice had significantly decreased glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance at 15 min and 30 min respectively than NCD ones (P<0.05). There were higher plasma insulin concentration and leptin concentration in HFD mice than those in NCD ones (P<0.05). High fat-induced increased body weight was associated with increased cellular activation, indicated by Fos immunoreactive (ir) staining, in nucleus accumbens(NAcc), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN) than those of NCD ones (P<0.05); and also significantly associated with enhanced in the number of cells labeled for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-ir), and the number of cells co-labeled for TH-ir/Fos-ir in the VTA and SN than those of NCD ones (P<0.01). Moreover, there was significantly relationship TH-ir positive cell numbers with final body weight in VTA and SN in HFD mice (P<0.05).Conclusion: The results showed that chronic consumption of high-fat food was associated with plasticity-related changes in reward circuitry in mice.
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